Installation in Freezing Liquid
Levelogger installation at submerged depths that may be at risk of freezing during the monitoring session is not recommended without taking adequate precautions to avoid transducer damage. When water freezes it expands approximately 9% by volume. A 9% expansion can equate to extreme pressure as demonstrated in Example 10.1. Therefore, solid freezing has the potential to damage the pressure transducer, which is rated to withstand up to 200% (150% for the Levelogger Gold and Junior Models) of its depth fluctuation range. Pressures beyond this threshold may damage the transducer. As such, care should be taken when choosing the appropriate pressure transducer range for your application.
Example 10.1 Solid Freezing Effects
The pressure exerted by the physical expansion or ice crystallization process on a retaining or enclosing contact surface is related to the temperature gradient over which the process occurs, i.e. the speed at which freezing occurs. For example, liquid freezing at -22ºC, can create expansion pressures of 22 kg/cm2 or 313 psi or the equivalent of 721 ft or 220 m water column depth.
With precautions, the Levelogger can be used in freezing liquid environments. If monitoring shallow water bodies or groundwater zones susceptible to freezing, the easiest way to avoid transducer damage is to lower the transducer to a point in the water column below the frost line or ice formation depth. In water bodies such as shallow streams, wetlands or ponds where freezing may penetrate to the bottom, install the Levelogger in a vented stilling well imbedded into the bottom of the water body beyond the frost line.
Although precautions can be taken, placing a Levelogger in a situation where the water may freeze solid can permanently damage the sensor.
In cases where the above noted precautions cannot be taken and the Levelogger must be installed in the freezing zone, it is recommended that the logger be placed inside two elongated silicon, rubber or latex balloons, the balloons can be filled with a non-toxic, non-corrosive anti-freeze solution and sealed (Figure 10-16). Place the balloons in a section of perforated, 1.25" (30 mm) ID pipe and install the logger in the monitored water. The antifreeze solution will protect the Levelogger from ice expansion at the pressure transducer, yet transmit any pressure fluctuations that occur. However, it should be noted that even if these precautions are taken, there is still the risk that placing a Levelogger in a situation where the water may freeze solid can permanently damage the sensor (see Example 10.1).
Please note that a similar installation protection can be used when the Levelogger is monitoring liquids which are incompatible with its wetted materials.
The operating temperature range for Leveloggers is -20° - 80°C (-4° - 180°F). At the opposite end of the thermal scale, exposing the Levelogger to temperatures beyond 80°C may damage the thermistor and otherwise affect the Levelogger.